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Saturday, July 15, 2017

ENTREPRENEURIAL AGRICULTURE: A PANACEA TO SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY AND YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA


Theme: Alleviating Poverty & Unemployment in the Nigeria Economy.

Tag line: "Making Life Better For All Nigerians"



Category: Entrepreneurial Agriculture
Topic: A Panacea To Solving the Problem of Poverty and Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
Focus Area/Coverage: A Study of Erunwon Community, G.R.A, Ijebu Ode, Ogun Staate

By: 

Ambassador Adesanya Dele Akin


Introduction: About Me?


Adesanya Dele Akin, a Masters graduate with a distinction in Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management in Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye and a First Class graduate of Industrial and Labour Relations in Tai Solarin University, Ijagun, Ogun State. I had a professional certificate in Customer Relationship Management and Recently, I have registered for a professional certification in Chartered Institute of Personnel Management (CIPM) and PhD Programme in Industrial Sociology.
In addition, I am an ambassador with the Nicareer Initiative with 3-month Internship programme in community/youth leadership and web content developer with the purpose of assessing my leadership skills before placement to the role of Human Resource Assistant that match up to my qualification. This offer was accepted because I have been looking for an opportunity to discharge my development plan that requires capital and back-up like this Nicareer Initiatives. This prompted me to accept this offer and because it is aimed at developing and engaging the youth to deal with poverty and unemployment starting from the community level that will later lead to national development. With the knowledge of the nature of problems in my community (Eruwon, Ijebu Ode) and the possible solutions at hand led me to write on Entrepreneurial Agriculture as a panacea to solving the problem of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria.

Study Area: Eruwon, GRA, Ijebu Ode, Ogun State


Erunwon, is a community located in Ijebu Ode local government area of Ogun State at 6052’N 3043’E. It has area of 80km2 and a population of 81,745 at the 2006 census. Eruwon is endowed with good weather, typical of rainforest. The climate and geographical location of the community is supportive of the wide range of economic activities such as agriculture, industrial and commercial activities. The surrounding towns are almost equidistant with an average of five kilometers. Eruwon community is surrounded by secondary and private schools, hotels, technical college and various lands mass of sandy, sandy loamy soils and part of forests. The forest structure protects the fragile soils from erosion in the high rainfall regime of the region. 
The most significant ecological factor in the community region is, however the rich in fertile soil for cultivation of cassava, water yam, palm kernel, kola nut (cola nitida), and the rest. Less than 30 percent of the populations are wage earners, over 60 percent are engaged in petty trading, and 10 percent are subsistence farmers. Consequently, 90 percent of the people of Eruwon lived below international extreme poverty line of US$1.00 per day. The community is dominated with jobless youth and as a result, all manners of menace and problems arise. These problems shall be discussed in the next sub-section. 

Statement of the problem in Eruwon Community


Poverty and unemployment are social problems that serve as parent to other crimes like kidnapping, rape, drug trafficking, cyber-fraud, conflict and diseases, insincerity, corruption among others. The youth and graduates mostly falls victim of these problems and they have the highest unemployment rate in Nigeria that contributed to high rate of poverty and insecurity in the country (Akwara et al, 2013; Lucas, et al, 2014; Ajufo, 2013; Anho, 2014; Okoye-Nebo et al, 2014; Salam, 2013; and Emeh, 2012). In-line with the scholarly views, Eruwon community is dominated with unemployed and poverty-stricken youth which open doors to all manners of problems highlighted above. According to the Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity report (2008 in Hassan, 2013) “Nigeria has one of the highest level of youth unemployment in the world (60-65%). The available estimate which shows that about 1.6 million persons, mostly young adults, graduate annually, 3.8 million others are certificate carrying youths that have formal education or have completed primary or secondary, or dropped out from tertiary institutions all of which are annually poured into saturated labour market”. In Eruwon community however, most of youth were certificate carrying graduates without jobs and capital to start up something.
It is no longer new that most people involved in criminal activities falls in the youth age bracket. Many of them (Eruwon Youth) engage in cyber-fraud which is mostly called “yahoo boy”, many were among “tout” “Drug Addicted” and prone to playing Niger belt due to poverty and unemployment in Nigeria. Armed robbers are on the increase among youths due to factors that lies on poverty, unemployment and above all corruption. All these are negatively affecting the development of the Eruwon community. 
Another problem is the perception of many youth in the community about employment. The researcher/ambassador found that meaning attached to employment is different among individuals and even policy makers. Most individuals view employment as a job with salary and working for someone else. This is because of the curricula and training programmes of many institutions and policy makers had been tailored only on formal sectors jobs, influencing the perception of youth as regards to employment. However, a mismatch occur between the skills possessed because there is limited available jobs to actualize the skills (Mcgrath, 1999; Kent & Mushi, 1995; Oladele et al, 2011; Okoye-Nebo et al, 2014; Francis and Uke, 2015) Not to talk of critical economy recession of this time. The perception need to be redirected with sound and effective entrepreneurship education among youth in Eruwon community to create a match rather than mismatch and develop job creators rather than working for someone else. A Respondent was interviewed about this perception and he replied;

The Respondent (A):

  • Most universities graduates have the perception that without office job they will not do anything. It is painful to me that I went to university without job for 8years ago. Nigeria University to me is a waste of time. If I know I will learn work since even before planning any university. If our government or private sector build university or polytechnic for tailoring, road construction, mechanic e.t.c I forgo instead of pure theory I went. For first semester I should learn suit sewing, wedding gown, second semester is I should learn akara male and female style……I have started learning tailoring and by November I should complete it. I wish to have shop for myself, sell sewing materials and teach people as well….      


Resp.A/Eruwon/Ijebu Ode.  

Entrepreneurial Agriculture: Recommended Solution


The word entrepreneur was derived from the French word “entreprendre” which means to “undertake” (Hassan, 2013) and the term was first used at 18th century by a French economist named Richard Cantillon who viewed entrepreneur as the “agent who buys means of production at certain prices in order to combine them into a new product” (Schumpeter, 1951; Burnett; 2000 in Hassan, 2013). Furthering the discussion in Hassan (2013), the scholar expressed the contribution of Jean-Baptiste, an aristocrat industrialist, whose definition of entrepreneur lasted for almost two-centuries. According to him, “an entrepreneur is one who combines the land of one, the labour of another, and capital of yet another, and thus, produces a product and by selling the product in the market, he pays interest on capital, rent on land and wages to labourers and what remains is his/her profit. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks and sees opportunities in problems with the aid of creativity and innovation and creates or starts something with value. Dennis (2011) defined entrepreneurship as a process by which individuals become conscious of business ownership as an option or viable alternative, develop ideas for business and learn the process of becoming an entrepreneur and undertake the initiative of developing a business. Nwobasi (2011) identified entrepreneurial skills to include managerial skills, job/technical skills, human relations skills, innovative/enterprising skills etc. so, entrepreneurial is a behaviour to be developed.
Agriculture can be defined as the art and science of cultivating crops, rearing of animals and general management of soil for human uses. It is a deliberate attempt by man to cultivate crops and rear animals for the benefits derived from them. Agriculture also involves the preparation and processing of plant and animal products and marketing or disposal of these products (Erebor, 2003). There are several occupations available in the agricultural sector. These include agronomy, horticulture, forestry, animal production, aquaculture and bee farming. Entrepreneurial Agriculture is the application of entrepreneurial skills to agricultural process like food crop production, livestock production, orchard management, aquaculture (fish farming), mechanization, marketing, processing and distribution and forest jobs. Youth’s involvement in agriculture provides them with economic benefits and means of self-reliance. The solutions are however explained thus;
  1. Provision for Entrepreneurship Education for the Youth: for the success of this Nicareer initiative, ambassadors in each community need to create awareness and at the same time provision for training centres should be made available. Entrepreneurship education is the teaching of masses, learners and would-be business man, the necessary skills required to build viable enterprises, equipping the trainees with skills needed for taking responsibility and developing initiatives of prospective trainees. As an ambassador, awareness as regards this has been going on and as a zonal president of 10 churches in Redeemed Christian Church of God, Father’s House, Ijebu Ode, I had designed and organized a programme for youth empowerment and the date has been communicated.
  2. Provision for Large-Scale Agriculture: Agricultural holdings are generally small and scattered in Eruwon community; farming is often of the subsistence variety of few, characterized by simple tools and shifting cultivation. The economic benefits of large-scale agriculture will be of benefit to the masses. Take for instance, the cultivation of cassava, water yam, palm kernel, kola nut etc in large scale will help to reduce unemployment and poverty. The youth will be divided in batches (some for the clearing of bushes and weed, some for planting and cultivating, others for harvesting etc). This can later develop into industrial agriculture in Eruwon community. Large-scale agriculture, however, is not common. Despite an abundant water supply, a favorable climate, and wide areas of arable land, productivity is restricted owing few and less capital subsistence agriculture. Effective land tenure reform and provision of training in development of agriculture related industries suitable for unskilled Nigerians could make agriculture a more viable source of employment opportunities and building wealth for citizens.


The Strategy 


We have a large government reserve lands scattered all over in Eruwon Community and at the same time, there are youth that have access to farm lands, either for their parents or for someone else close to them. A letter will be sent to the local government as regard Nicareer initiatives plan with the support of community leaders to have access to these lands or each youth that have access to land will be gathered for these innovative saga. The target is identify minimum 6 (Six) large lands for farm purposes which will be scattered all over the community (not in a single file). See the table below;


To get access to land and the youth to work on those lands in Eruwon community is not the problem; the major problem is the loan to kick-start the project. The reason for this loan is get materials and pay workers (youth) working on the farmland. The revenue from this project will be made available to refund the loan. Each youth will be allotted with a portion on the farmland with a tag number which will help to identify workers productivity. The payment system will be tagged to productivity along clearing, planting, removal of weeds, harvesting, marketing and sales. Before this, training on these identified agricultural types will be provided for the youth by calling experts which will help them to develop their own in future. 


Applicable to Nigeria: Bringing the Glory of latter years 

(Following David Ricardo Strategy)

David Ricardo was an economist in the 19th century. He postulated that a country should specialize in the production of goods and service in which it has a comparative cost (lesser cost of production) over other country and also leave those other country to produce what they can at their comparative cost (lesser cost of production). Later, they exchange among themselves, that production will increase and their cost will reduce.
Following the analogy of Ricardo, a state or community should make use of entrepreneurial agriculture to cultivate what their land can best cultivate at highest degree and leave those others ones to other state or communities to produce. Later, exchange among states on the harvest of those crops should be practiced and zero exportation of product for like 10-20 years. Production will increase, food will be many, youth will be engaged and cost will be reduced.

For instance:


We have 36 states in Nigeria; each state with the help of government should set aside let say 100 hectares of land for the purpose of Agriculture and focus should be on what that state can produce at its maximum capacity. E.g Abuja should base on Yam and other products. Others states should as well hold on to some products with their 100 hectares of land for youth to cultivate. 
Since some youth has been empowered for teaching (through N-power), the government should re-structure the posting of National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) into those set aside 100 hectares of land in each states and other youth in the state. Where to sleep, corpers lodge should be available near farmlands and each corpers should be divided into portion on the farmland. Supervisors will be made available to check the progress of their work and record for the purpose of signing their monthly payment. What batch A do will be continued by batch B and C follow the trend. They are been 19,800 already by the government. The point here is;
  1. NYSC posting should be solely on those 100 hectares of land and not elsewhere. 
  2. Provision for mechanized farming should be provided to reduce stress at work
  3. Resting time should be provided
  4. Government assisted lodge should be built around the farmlands.
  5. Frequent training and education should be given on the techniques of crop production and cultivation (Agriculture). This will help them to develop their own after NYSC
  6. State should exchange/ sell those farm produce among themselves
  7. Stop exportation for some years for food to circulate the country.
  8. Engaged other youth in another set of farmland (unemployed youth: graduate and non-graduate).
  9. State coordinators solely on agriculture. 
  10. Nicareer Ambassadors should be the administrators on each farmland.

Problems of unemployment, poverty will be forgotten has this strategy will develop the spirit of entrepreneurial agriculture and as well bring the glory of latter years.

Benefits and Importance


The introduction of entrepreneurship education/training as the first point is aimed at offering functional education to youths to make them self-employed and self-reliant; provide young graduates with adequate training for them to be creative and innovative in identifying business opportunities and establish careers in small and medium scale businesses among others. Entrepreneurial skills can be gainfully applied at grass roots level in agriculture which hitherto has been neglected by the youths. This can be made possible through the Nicareer initiatives and through the power in my position as an ambassador. The prospective entrepreneurs with good business proposal on entrepreneurial agriculture will be selected for further scrutiny by Nicareer management for the purpose of getting loans to work on the identified farm lands develop their business. Youths can be encouraged through this program to go into agri-businesses for the production of goods and services.
Food crops such as roots and tubers, cassava, cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruits, beverages, spices etc. can be cultivated and produced competitively under the Nicareer Programme for income generation. Cash crops like groundnut, soya beans, cowpea, melon etc. can be produced for small and medium scale enterprise. Production of livestock animals like poultry, swine, rabbit, sheep, goat, cattle can also serve for small and medium scale enterprises. Other areas for business enterprise include bee farming, snail rearing, fish farming, charcoal production, broom making, basket, mat, chair weaving etc.
Youths can acquire skills to render services as business enterprise in agriculture. These services are as follows; garri processing, groundnut and palm oil extraction, groundnut cake processing, soya beans meal preparation, grafting and budding of citrus and other tree crops, palm wine tapping, slaughtering of animals and meat dressing, spraying of weeds, pests and diseases on crops, etc. Services available in veterinary field are vaccination, castration, notching and tattooing of animals. Other services include post-harvest processing and preservation of farm produce like cassava, yam, and sweet potatoes. Acquisition of these skills can be through apprenticeship or mentorship.
Agricultural sector is one out of several others which Nigeria needed to explore for her resources and maximum concentration should be provided. The youth and NYSC orientation should be focus on this direction for maximum food surplus, youth engagement, employment and self-employment and crime reduction in Nigeria.  

Theoretical Orientation


Sociological model of surplus value by Marx is used to critically juxtapose the causes of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria. According to Marx (1848):

“It is in the very nature of the capitalist mode of production to overwork some workers while keeping the rest as a reserve army of unemployed paupers”

This assertion unfolds the nature of unemployment and poverty inherent in the capitalist system. Marx believed that capitalist societies like Nigeria will always have a cycles-periods of expansion where there will be full employment, then followed by period of crises during which unemployment rose, as reported by Oduwole (2015). However recovery from crisis is always temporary. Meaning that, unemployment is a major attribute of capitalist system. The “reserve army of labour” by Marx, was referred to a population of proletariat within the capitalist system that is not employed because they are bound to cause downward pressure on wages. The point here is that the capitalist will prefer to employ little and “overwork” them to minimize cost of labour, keeping others as reserve in the society. Oduwole (2015) reported that “unemployment is profitable within the global capitalist system because unemployment lower wages which are cost from the perspective of the owners”. The capitalist in this respect include the boguizez, governments, and owners of the means of production and in a nutshell the upper class. And for the fact that government is the largest employer of labour, appropriation of surplus value will remain in the capitalist societies. The capitalists manipulate labour market by perpetuating unemployment which lowers labourers’ demands for wages leading to short labour, overwork and more profit on the side of the capitalist and the other hand unemployment, under-employment and poverty to the masses, including youths and graduate in Nigeria. In the Nigeria context “super-rich politicians together with super-rich capitalists formed a cabal and logically established economic imperialism” (Oduwole, 2015). So, conflict between the capitalists (super-rich politicians & Government and owner of the means of productions) and proletariat (unemployed youths, adults, under-employed and other lower class) will manifest in diverse forms. Such as; kidnapping, robbery, cyber-fraud, book harm threats, militants and others mostly from the side of youths, under-employed and others. And to others in the public service strike and other sanctions like the recent case of Ogun State Government versus Public Servant will be the order of the day.
The review of karlmax surplus value was used in this study not to condemn the capitalists’ societies but to expose the nitty-gritty of the capitalists. Entrepreneurial Agriculture however, will help to some extent to close the gap of poverty, unemployment, suffering between the rich and the poor. But the major question and problem is that:
After the utilization of the skills through entrepreneurial agriculture to create job, will the job owner, engage in the practice of the capitalists?  

The following graph shows the basic expression of the theory and how entrepreneurial agriculture fills the gap; 
Psychological Theories: Locus of control
Personality traits of an individual were the major point of discussion in psychological theories. Kwabena (2011) highlighted some of these traits or behaviours of an entrepreneurs to include: opportunity driven, high level of creativity and innovation, high level of managerial skills and business know-how, optimistic, emotional resilient and mental energy, hard to be dissatisfied with the status-quo and desire improvement, transformational in nature, long life learners and use failure as a tool, they believe they can personally make a difference and they are individuals of integrity and above all visionary. To the personalist perspectives, these traits are inborn or innate qualities. No wonder Coon (2004) defines personality traits as “stable qualities that a person shows in most situations”. In the absence or present of these traits of entrepreneurs’, Entrepreneurship education will better foster or create formalized and specialized traits/skills to meet up with this dynamic and multi-faceted business environment.
The locus of control aspect of psychological theories of entrepreneurship is of high interest to the researcher. The concept was first introduced by Julian Rotter in the 1950s. Kwabena (2011) viewed locus of control orientation as the belief of an individual to the causes of their actions or outcome. If the causes of their actions or outcome are within, this is called internal locus of control and if outside, it is called external locus of control. Internal locus of control are the abilities, personalities or factors inherent in the individual that can either cause success or failure, while external locus of control are the factors inherent in the environment. For instance, policies from government and other institutions that can affect the behaviour and action of individuals to react to something. Entrepreneurs success however comes from his/her own abilities and the support from outside (external) (Kwabena, 2011). Empirical findings by (Cromie, 2000; Ho and Koh, 1992; Koh, 1996; Robinson et al, 1991) viewed internal locus of control as entrepreneurial characteristics and Bonnett and Furnham (1991) concluded that internal locus of control was found to be positively associated with the desire to become an entrepreneur.
Furthering on this discussion, there exist factors within the individual that is termed traits, behaviours, entrepreneurship characteristics that can determine interest of being an entrepreneur and there exist factors outside the individual that can recommend, force or neglect the skills and characteristics involved in entrepreneurship on individual. The main point here is that, irrespective of the traits, skills or characteristics of a youth, graduate or individuals, entrepreneurship education should be provided as external locus of control by the government and other institutions to minimize the problem of unemployment, poverty and its rank and files in Nigeria.

Strength and weakness of the theories

The theory identified the major factors inherent in entrepreneur’s success or failure in business and these factors can be within (personality traits/characteristics) and outside (Government policy, climate change, leadership/managerial policies and others). The theory fails to identify that these traits or behaviours can be “made” through entrepreneurial agriculture or vocational education. Also, to identify the exact traits/inborn qualities is not a straight forward answer since we cannot point at particular traits.

Sociology versus Psychological Views

Juxtaposing the two theories (Sociological versus Psychological view) shows that the cause of unemployment and poverty among youth lies within the actions or forces of the capitalists/super-rich politicians/government/employers of labour/upper class and individual or youth themselves. This can be inability to discover the traits/talents or absence of entrepreneurship skills in individuals and on the other hand it can be as a result of lacks or insufficient of entrepreneurial agriculture. No matter the cause of poverty and unemployment from these perspectives, entrepreneurial agriculture is the panacea. If there is shortage of skills, traits, and increased forces of capitalists for surplus value, and other internal and external factors, entrepreneurial agriculture will mitigate the heat through self-employment.

Conceptual Clarification


Unemployment:

Hassan (2013) categorized the unemployed as people of specified age who are;
1. “Without work” meaning not in paid employment or self-employment.
2. “Currently available for work”, that is, they are willing to accept paid employment or a self-employment during the reference period.
3. “Seeking work”, that is, taking steps to attain paid employment or self-employment.

Youth:

Youth, with reference to Webster’s New Oxford Dictionary in Francis and Uke (2015) is “the time of life when one is young especially the period between childhood and maturity of the early period of existence, growth or development”. As reported by the scholar, The National Youth Development Policy viewed youths as young persons between the age of 18-35 years, who are citizens and most cultured, volatile and vulnerable segment of the population.

Youth Unemployment:

Echebiri (2005) Gibb and George (1990) and Onah (2001) in Emeh (2012) described youth unemployment as conglomerate of youths with diverse background, willing and able to work, but cannot find any. It is a number of economically active graduates or youths, certified or not who are without work but available and seeking for employment.

Poverty:

  1. Poverty can be conceptualized in four different ways;
  2. Lack of access to basic needs/goods
  3. Lack of or impaired access to productive resource
  4. Outcome of inefficient use of common resources

And as a result of “exclusive mechanisms”
Stressing from the first point, the basic needs/goods are nutrition, shelter/housing, water, and health care, access to productive resources including education, working skills, tools and political/civil rights to participate in decisions concerning socio-economic conditions.

Entrepreneurial Agriculture: 


It is the systematic development of entrepreneur behaviour and skills into agriculture.

View of Participant 

The Second respondent (B):
  • “One thing I know that causes unemployment and poverty is that our youth believe so much in formal sector jobs. Dangote started from small business and see today the business have big in size. Our youth need vocational training program let say for 6month and after the training loan to start work should be given”

The respondent added:
  • “As I am, I have a small farmland, I planted corn and cassava, and small poultry, if I have access to loan, I will make it big and sell it at cheaper price to attract customers”

Resp. B/Eruwon/Ijebu Ode.  

Conclusion 


From the review of literature and theories of this write up, evidence as shown that entrepreneurial agriculture is a panacea for youth unemployment and poverty in Nigeria because it involves a process of capacity building, agricultural/business knowledge enhancement, potentialities, creativity and innovation needed to invent and create jobs to mitigate the forces of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria. Effective policy to create awareness of the crucial role of entrepreneurial agriculture and re-structuring of National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) is needed since the present situation in Nigeria posed a serious threats and challenges to government, organizations and citizens. So, different strategies and actions of re-orientation and implementation of entrepreneurial agriculture to foster employment generation and mitigation of poverty among Eruwon community youth and graduate in Nigeria are needed to enhance national security.

References

  1. Akwara, A.F., Awara, N.F., Enwuchola, J., Adekunle, M. and Udaw, J.E (2013). 
  2. Unemployment and poverty: Implications for national security and good governance in Nigeria, International Journal of Public Administration and Management Research (IJPAMR), 2(1). Pp.1-11
  3. Ajufo, B.I. (2013). Challenges of youth unemployment in Nigeria: effective career guidance as a panacea. African Research Review, International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, 7(1), pp.307-321
  4. Anho, J.E. (2014). Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Unemployment, Poverty Reduction and National Insecurity in Developing Under-Developed Countries, American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(3), pp.124-136
  5. Burnett, D. (2000). Hunting for Haffalumps: The supply of entrepreneurship and economic development, Technopreneural.com http://www.geogle.com
  6. Bonnett, C. and Furnham, A. (1991). “Who wants to be an entrepreneur? A study of Adolescents interested in a young enterprise scheme”, Journal of Economic Psychology, 12(1), pp. 65-78
  7. Coon, D. (2004). Introduction to psychology (9th Ed) Minneapolis: West Publishing Company.
  8. Cromie, S. (2000). “Assessing entrepreneurial inclination: some approaches empirical evidence”. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9 (1), pp.7-30
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  10. Echebiri, R.N. (2005). Characteristics and determinants of urban youth unemployment in Umuahia, Nigeria: Implications for rural development and alternative labour market variables. A paper presented at the ISSER/ Cornell/ World Bank Conference on “shared growth in Africa” held in Accra, Ghana, July 21-22
  11. Francis, I.O and Uke, A.F. (2015). Entrepreneurial Education: A panacea for youth unemployment in Nigeria, international journal of small business and entrepreneurship research, 3(5), pp.11-22
  12. Gibb, A. (2002). In pursuit of a New “Enterprise” and “Entrepreneurship” paradigm for learning: Creative Deconstruction, New values, new ways of doing things and new combinations of knowledge, International Journal of Management Review, 4(3), 233- 269
  13. Hassan, O.M. (2013). Curbing the unemployment problem in Nigeria through entrepreneurial development, African Journal of Business Management, 7(44), pp.4429-4444
  14. Ho, T.S and Koh, H.C. (1992). “Differences in psychological characteristics between Entrepreneurially inclined and non-entrepreneurially inclined accounting graduates in Singapore”. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Change, An International Journal, 1(1), pp.43-54
  15. Kent, D.W and Mushi, P.S.D. (1995). The Education and Training of artisan for the informal sector in Tanzania. A report prepared for the overseas development administration. UK Serial, No.18
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12 comments:

  1. Olunlade OluseyiJuly 16, 2017 at 7:33 AM

    wow, wonderful write up.

    ReplyDelete
  2. waooo...great job from the researcher...this is highly educating, eye opener that should be embraced fully to reduce and used to eliminate poverty in our country.you have done the best research so far....

    ReplyDelete
  3. Ominiyi omifolakeJuly 16, 2017 at 12:01 PM

    This is the best of all. The researcher really worked compare to other ambassador. An Eye opener indeed.

    ReplyDelete
  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Nice research. I can remember during the operation feed the nation in Nigeria when there is increase in local food production through agriculture and there is reduce import food to Nigeria. I think this research will broading our knowledge that farming is the way out.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Diligent research and excellent delivery. Good job.

    ReplyDelete
  7. This is deep and more importantly it concentrates on rural population which its context usually experiences drift to the city. If the recommendations and the knowledge provided in this empirical study are taken, then our communities and even cities and their youth will have a better and improved socioeconomic well-being. Dele, you have done very well, I am not surprised.

    ReplyDelete
  8. I stand with Ambassador Chukwuka Philip
    Topic; Hunger in our community.His topic is a life touching topic that will affect life both born and unborn.A healthy people is a healthy nation.

    ReplyDelete

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